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Christian Roman Empire
Tolerated

Official

Then sole legal religion except Judaism
Arianism

Donatists

Manicheans
Constantine died 337
When he died empire restored to former glory
Fourth century often seen through the lens of 410 sacking 
Inequality one of signs/problems
Time of social mobility 

Many paths open

Barbarians taking major positions in Roman Empire, especially in army
Sometimes empire divided sometimes not
395 Theodosius dies

After always two, east and west
Julian the apostate 360-363

Tried to restore traditional paganism 

Intellectual of sorts
After his death no paganism
Marcus Aurelius was a philosopher
 393 Theodosius made only

Christianity legal and small space for Judaism
The saints are a kind of substitute for polytheism
Rural people and intellectuals

Especially platonists 
Chief occupation of emperors

Persians and on Danube Barbarians
Arianism

Christ different from God
Platonism emphasises the absolute

and the superiority of the spiritual 

Material is mortal passes away

In Platonism 

The one

The Demi-urge 

Matched up with God the father

And son
There was a time when Christ was not
Nicean

All co eternal, members of trinity 
Missionaries that converted barbarians were Arians

By time barbarians in empire

Arianism was gone

370s
Barbarians – generally Germanic

Tribes
320s Nicea

381 Constantinople a heresy
In west still Arianism 
Donatists

If it turns out priest is bad 

Had buckled under torture

Your baby was not properly baptised

Marriage didn’t count etc
But if Bishop was fine but anointed by failed priest – not legitimate
Lends itself to sectarianism
Office greater than man?
Manichaeans

Teaching about good and evil

Have real existence

War between good God and evil one

Eg Devil

Or the God of the Old Testament

Also matter evil
Salvation means casting off the flesh
What’s wrong

God is limited   

Takes away individual responsibility 
Roman emperors had to intervene
Frustrating for emperors as can’t kill the heretics
He was afraid of upsetting God

Didn’t want to let it go
Also frustrated with Arianism

Considered it over subtle and trivial 
Summoned bishops in Nicaea 325

God and Christ are the same essence but different persons
Begotten but not made – not in time
Athanasius 
Constantine was baptised just before he died

He was a moderate Arian later in life

Augustine introduced child baptism
330s understanding that Christian no longer a sinner
Why read confessions?

An autobiography

Intimate

Anxiety, desires, doubts

Shows the fluidity of religious scene

First Platonist

Then a Manichaean

Then Christian Manichaean

Then Christian Platonist

Then Orthodox Christian
More time is spent on stealing pears than his concubine
A lot of prayers, quotations from scripture
Platonism

More interested in the one and trying to apprehend the one

Superiority of spirit over material 

Unlike Manichaeans material not

Sinful it is good but inferior
Platonic love – 

Platonism is a turning away
Loving physical more

Result of poor education

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