Month: November 2012

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Order and Creation in the Ancient Near East

The three great influences on the Hebrew Bible are Canaan, Egypt and Babylon. Each of these had well developed beliefs about the gods, creation and order in the cosmos. In the Ancient Near East they had no concept of nothingness before creation. For them the opposite of an ordered creation was total disorder often cast as violent waters. It is interesting that in the Bible account of creation it does not start with nothingness but a world that is formless and empty with dark waters: “Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters” (Genesis 1:2). For the people of the Ancient Near East creation involved the bringing of order, i.e. the seasons, food, harmony, the placing of different people in their different social positions with different tasks etc. The people of the Ancient Near East were concerned that the Gods kept up the order i.e. sustained the world. In Canaan El was credited with creating the world but Ba’al with sustaining it. He was the god of order as opposed to Yam who personified chaos cialis aus holland. Religious festivals and offerings, to Ba’al were important in helping to please him so that order would be maintained. In Babylon the order of creation also included the order of society. And so the...

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What is Redaktionsgeschichte by Robert Stein

This article looks at defining Redaktionsgeschichte. It compares it with form criticism. Form criticism is interested in analyzing each supposed source that makes up the gospel. Analysing the tree instead of the forest. If the gospel writers only copied sources and put these together without much thought or editing then this may be enough. However, it is unlikely that this is the case and so a holistic overview is needed. It also states the need for, and respect of, the different types of biblical criticism. It mentions that the Gospel writers had a more important job than just copying and pasting material together. They had their own theology and arranged material accordingly. It also mentions that oral traditions have the tendency to scatter material. People may just learn a part of what they heard and pass that on, and so on and so on. The pioneers of  Redaktionsgeschichte were Conzelmann and Marxsen. Conzelmann came first in 1954 with Die Mitte der Zeit in which he sought to ascertain what distinguished Luke from his sources. Marxsen then did something similar for Mark’s Gospel, Der Evangelist Markus. However, Marxsen started off his work by defining the term Redaktionsgeschichte and the subsequent discussion revolved around this definition. Marxsen speaks of three separate “Sitz im Libem” (‘settings in life’) that are necessary for investigating the gospels: the relationship to the historical, earthly Jesus; the relationship to the oral...

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The importance of the Exodus to Israel

The importance of the Exodus to Israel and the revelation of God as a Father This essay explains and elucidates the following statement: ‘The Exodus is such a significant event in Israel’s history, that it serves as more than just an account of the wandering in the desert. It is a paradigm, a pattern of how God deals with his people, signifying the formation of relationship’. In this essay it will be shown that the Exodus was of great importance to Israel, that in the Exodus God reveals himself as a father and that this intimate relationship carries on...

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